Wednesday, October 2, 2019

Role of Gandhi Ji against British government-गांधीजी का योगदान एवं जीवनी

Here are 9 incredible facts about Gandhi Ji

गांधीजी का योगदान एवं जीवनी 



Mahatma gandhi
young Mahatama Gandhi




Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2 October, 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat. His father, Karamchand Gandhi was the Diwan of Rajkot. His mother, Putlibai was a religious lady. At the age of 19, Mahatma Gandhi went to study law in England and later practiced successfully as a lawyer in South Africa

At the time the British ruled South Africa and Indian in South Africa where ill-treated. Gandhiji stayed there for 21 years, fighting the racist policies of white rulers. He decided to fight against this. He mobilized people and organised protects based on the ideals of non-violence and Satyagraha. In 1915, Gandhiji returned to India.

INSIGHT

          1. Arrival of Mahatma Gandhi 
          2. Rowlatt Act of 1919
          3. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
          4. Non-Cooperation Movement
          5. Simon Commission
          6. Civil Disobedience Movement
          7. Quit India Movement
          8. Indian National Army(Azad Hind Fauz)
          9. Freedom At Last

1.Arrival of Mahatma Gandhi 

Mahatma Gandhi Ji back

On returning to India, Mahatma Gandhi became an important part of the Indian National Congress. He was highly unhappy about the treatment given to the lower caste people by the upper caste people.
               The disunity among the Indian people due to religion, caste, and gender was a hindrance to the achievement of freedom. He joined the politics in India. He started Satyagraha in India also. Satyagraha became the most important weapon against the British during this phase.

2.Rowlatt Act of 1919 

Rowlatt Act of 1919

To add to the already growing discontent among the people, the British government made such laws that took away the liberty of people.
 One such law was the Rowlatt Act of 1919. as per this act, anybody could be arrested without a court trial.

       There was no scope for appeal. Most of the freedom fighter felt humiliated as this act was against their peaceful demonstrations and agitations. After passing this act, the British government became harsher with the Indians Public meetings were completely banned. People were not allowed to express their views. Even the peaceful demonstrators were arrested and punished severely.


3.JALLIANWALA BAGH MASSACRE 

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

In 1919, the British passed new laws called the Rowlatt Act

. Under these laws, they could arrest anyone without a trial. Gandhiji asked the people to protest against unjust laws. Demonstrations and meetings were held all over the nation. 

       One such a peaceful meeting was held on 13 April 1919 at a big park Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. About 20,000 men, women, and children attended the meeting. One British officer General Dyer came with about 150 soldiers. They blocked the only way out of the park and fired endlessly.

        The people were trapped and the guns blazed away. Thousands of innocent men, women, and children lost their lives. Afterward, no one was allowed to remove the dead or attend to the wounded. The high authorities tried to suppress the news but it spread all over the country. A wave of shock and anger spread all over the country. People's urge to fight against the British Government became stronger.

4.NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT 

Non cooperation movement

 The Non-cooperation movement was launched to protest against the treatment of Turkey by the allied forces, as well as the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Thousands of people from every section of society participated in this movement. People renounced titles given by the British government. Rabindranath Tagore returned the Knighthood awarded to him by the king of England. Students left British run schools and colleges. Lawyers stopped practising, and law courts were boycotted.

 The British used every possible measure to crush the movement. Prominent leaders were arrested. This led to violence in some parts of the country. Gandhiji was greatly upset when people became violent at Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh in 1922 Violent crowd set fire to a police station and 22 policemen were killed. Gandhiji decided to withdraw the movement, seeing that it was veering away from the path of non-violence and Satyagraha.

During this movement, many young leaders joined Gandhiji. Among them were Jawaharlal NehruDr.Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Subhash Chandra Bose, Motilal Nehru and Sarojini Naidu.


 5.SIMON COMMISSION  

Simon commission


 
The British government was now alarmed that the freedom movement was growing stronger every day. In the meantime, the British government thought of bringing some reforms in the administrative system. A commission under the chairmanship of Sir Johan Simon was set up in 1927 for this purpose. It was called the Simon Commission. As all of its members were British, Congress decided to boycott it. 

          When the Commission arrived in India, the Congress boycotted it. As there was no single Indian in the Commission, people called a nationwide boycott. They greeted the British with black flags and slogans like "Simon, Go Back". Lala Lajpat Rai was severely injured in the lathi-charge at the protests and died a few days later.

 6.CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT 

Civil Disobedience Movement
Civil Disobedience Movement

     The Congress now wanted complete independence from the British. It decided to celebrate Independence Day on 26 January 1930 and raise own flag. It marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement under the leadership of Gandhiji. He requested all the Indians not to pay taxes, especially sales tax, which was imposed on salt by the British government.
             According to this Indians were not allowed to make salt from the sea. Instead, they were forced to buy it from the British at high prices. So, he organized the Salt Satyagraha March, popularly known as the Dandi March, which started from the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad. People from all the parts of the country took an active part in the movement. In the north-western part of the country Khan Abdul GaffarKhan, popularly known as Frontier Gandhi, led the movement. north-east, it was led by Rani Gaidinliu of Nagaland and in the south by ChakravartiRajagopalachari.




7.QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT 

quit India movement
quit India movement

 The British arrested thousands of people, but could not crush the movement. Finally, they were forced to introduce reforms. In 1935, they passed the Government of India Act. Elections were held throughout the country. The Congress won in most provinces and formed governments. But power still. remained in the hands of the British. World War II broke out in 1939. The British declared war on India's behalf, without talking to the Indian leaders. In protest, the Congress ministries in the provinces resigned. The Congress declared that India would not join the war until the British granted complete independence. They held talks with the British. But the talks failed, and the Congress under the leadership of Gandhiji, launched the Quit India Movement in August 1942.
 Gandhiji gave his message to the people, 'Do or Die'. It meant either we win freedom or die for the same. Gandhiji and other leaders were arrested. There were violent protests all over the country.

8.INDIAN NATIONAL ARMY (AZAD HIND FAUJ) 

azad hind fauj
Azad hind fauj

 In 1941, former leader of INC Subhash Chandra Bose escaped from India. He organized the Azad Hind Fauj or the Indian National Army to free India. He was supported by many revolutionaries and Indian prisoners of war. They all united at the slogan 'Jai Hind'.
        His aim was to gain freedom for India through military attacks.With the help of Japanese troops he launched a military attack against the British in north-eastern India. This army was formed with the efforts of General Mohan Singh and Rash Behari Bose who fought for the freedom of India. Since Subhash Chandra Bose was in favour of using force, he said: "Give me blood and I will give you freedom".


 9.FREEDOM AT LAST
15 august independence day
15 august independence day

 In 1945, after World War II ended, the British accepted the fact that they could no longer rule India and decided to give it freedom. On 15 August 1947, India finally became a free nation, with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as its first Prime Minister and Dr.Rajendra Prasad the first President. However, the British succeeded in their policy of destabilizing the Hindu-Muslim unity. At the time of independence, the British government divided India into two separate countries, India and Pakistan, on the basis of religion.
        The Indian government adopted the policy of "secularism" based on the equality of all religions. India is now a "Secular Democratic Republic" in which the Indian people have the right to elect or overthrow their own government.


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